Vascular diseases of the brain
Vascular diseases of the brain candevelop due to hypertension, vascular malformations (arteriovenous aneurysms), vascular atherosclerosis in the brain and in the main vessels of the head. The reasons include vasculitis, phacomatosis, trauma, blood diseases and heart diseases.
In medical practice, stroke andcirculatory disorders in the brain of a transient nature. Transient disorders (dyscirculatory disorders, transient ischemic attack) are characterized by cyanosis of the facial skin and visible mucous membranes, in some cases, facial puffiness is noted. Disturbances, noise, and pain in the head are typical manifestations of the disorders. A common characteristic feature is a fainting condition, accompanied by a cold snap and cyanosis in the limbs.
Vascular diseases of the brain,They can be characterized by weakness and numbness of the transient nature in the extremities (hemiparesis), small speech disorders, convulsive seizures, a violation in the functions of the cranial nerves, and disorders of consciousness.
The duration of neurologic symptoms isa few minutes or hours, but not more than twenty-four hours. In some cases, under the guise of transient disorders in the circulation, micro-strokes develop. It should be noted that in such cases, it is very difficult to recognize the micro-insult.
Malignant course of essential hypertensioncan provoke cerebral edema, which is accompanied by a sharp onset of headache, which is aggravated by sneezing or coughing, vomiting, decreased heart rate, nausea, dizziness, meningeal symptoms. In a number of cases, the coordination of the patient is characteristic.
Vascular diseases of the brain,causing violations in the circulation of various arteries, characterized by a variety of symptoms, which depends on the lack of blood supply to the appropriate brain area. A transient impairment in the circulation, affecting the internal carotid artery, can provoke a verbal disorder or hemiparesis of a short-term course in the opposite part of the body. The development of disorders in the circulation of the vertebral arteries causes double vision, headaches, coordination disorders.
In severe atherosclerotic flow, cerebrovascular diseases are expressed in acute circulatory insufficiency of the brain, accompanied by various symptoms of organic nature.
As manifestations it should be noted decreasememory and intellect, decreased attention, the emergence of emotional instability, pathological reflexes, irritability. Acute disorders in the circulation can lead to thrombosis or embolism. These conditions are a common cause of strokes.
Disturbances in blood circulation can be worninborn character. To pathological congenital malformations in vascular development is the vascular malformation of the brain. In this case, an incorrect connection of the vein or artery, or both of them, is observed. The cause of the pathology is still unclear. The scale of these pathologies can be different.
A number of vascular diseases can be detected whenintrauterine growth. As a rule, ultrasound is used for diagnosis. Thus, for example, the cysts of the vascular plexuses of the brain are determined. This site does not have nerve cells and takes part in the production of fluid. This fluid is necessary for the development of the fetal brain. In some cases, it is blocked by surrounding cells. This leads to the formation of a cavity (cyst).