Water-salt metabolism of a person: functions, disturbance and regulation
Normal work of the human bodyis an extremely complex set of processes, one of which is water-salt metabolism. When he is in a normal state, a person is not in a hurry to improve his own health, but as soon as there are really noticeable deviations, many immediately try to apply different measures. To avoid this, it is best to understand in advance what the water-salt exchange is, and for what reason it is so important to maintain it in a normal state. Also in this article, we will consider the main violations and ways to restore it.
What is it?
Water-salt metabolism is a combination ofother intake of electrolytes and liquids into the body, as well as the main features of their assimilation and further distribution in internal tissues, organs, media, as well as all possible processes of removing them from the human body.
The fact that by themselves people are more than halfare composed of water, every person knows from childhood, and it is quite interesting that the total amount of fluid in our body changes and is determined by a fairly large number of factors, including age, total fat mass, and the number of those electrolytes. If a newborn person consists of water approximately 77%, then the adult man includes only 61%, and women - and altogether 54%. So low water content in the body of women is due to the fact that they have a slightly different water-salt exchange, and there is also a fairly large number of fat cells.
The total amount of fluid in the human body is set approximately as follows:
- Approximately 65% is allocated to intracellular fluid, and also associated with phosphate and potassium, which are anion and cation, respectively.
- Approximately 35% is an extracellular fluid that is mainly in the vascular bed and is a tissue and interstitial fluid.
Among other things, it is worth noting that,that water in the human body is in a free state, is constantly retained by colloids or takes a direct part in the formation and disintegration of protein, fat and carbohydrate molecules. Different tissues have a different ratio of bound, free and constitutional water, which also directly affects the regulation of water-salt metabolism.
In comparison with blood plasma, as well as a specialintercellular fluid, tissue is characterized by the presence of a sufficiently large amount of magnesium, potassium and phosphate ions, as well as not such a large concentration of calcium, sodium, chlorine and special bicarbonate ions. This difference is due to the fact that the capillary wall for proteins has a rather low permeability.
The correct regulation of water-salt metabolism inhealthy people provides not only the maintenance of a constant composition, but also the necessary volume of body fluids, maintaining the acid-base balance, and also the practically identical concentration of the necessary osmotically active substances.
You need to understand correctly how it workswater-salt metabolism. The regulation functions are performed by several physiological systems. First, specialized receptors react to all possible changes in the concentration of osmotically active substances, ions, electrolytes, as well as the amount of liquid present. In the future, signals are sent to the central nervous system of a person, and only then the body begins to change the water intake, as well as the isolation of it and the necessary salts, and thus the water-salt exchange systems are regulated.
Excretion of ions, water and electrolytes by the kidneysis under the direct control of the nervous system and a number of hormones. In the process of regulation of water-salt metabolism, physiologically active substances produced in the kidney also participate. The total sodium content inside the body is constantly regulated mainly by the kidneys under the control of the central nervous system through specialized sodium acceptors, which constantly react to the occurrence of any changes in the sodium content within the body fluids, as well as osmoreceptors and volumoreceptors that continuously analyze the osmotic pressure of the extracellular, as well as the volume of circulating liquid.
For the regulation of the exchange of potassium within humanthe body is responsible for the central nervous system, which uses various hormones of water-salt metabolism, as well as all kinds of corticosteroids, including insulin and aldosterone.
The regulation of chlorine exchange is directly dependent onquality of the kidneys, and from the body its ions are excreted in the majority of cases together with urine. The total amount of excreted sodium chloride directly depends on the used human diet, the activity of sodium reabsorption, acid-base balance, the condition of the tubular apparatus of the kidneys, as well as the mass of other elements. The exchange of chlorides is directly related to the exchange of water, so the regulation of water-salt metabolism in the body affects many other factors of normal functioning of various systems.
What is the norm?
The vast number of different physiologicalprocesses occurring within our body, directly depend on the total number of salts and liquids. At the moment it is known that in order to prevent violation of water-salt metabolism, a person should drink about 30 ml of water per kilogram of body weight per day. This amount is quite enough to supply our body the right quantities of minerals. In this case, water will be poured into various cells, vessels, tissues and joints, and also to dissolve and subsequently wash out all kinds of products of vital activity. In the majority of cases, the average number of water consumed throughout the day in humans is almost no more than two and a half liters, and such a volume often forms approximately as follows:
- up to 1 liter we get from food;
- up to 1.5 liters - due to drinking simple water;
- 0.3-0.4 liters - formation of oxidation water.
Regulation of water-salt metabolism in the bodydirectly depends on the balance between the amount of its receipt, as well as the allocation for a certain period of time. If during the day the body needs to get about 2.5 liters, then in this case, about the same amount and will be excreted from the body.
Water-salt metabolism in the human bodyis regulated by a whole complex of all possible neuroendocrine reactions, which are mainly aimed at the constant maintenance of a stable volume, as well as the osmotic pressure of the extracellular sector, and, what is especially important, blood plasma. Despite the fact that the various mechanisms for correcting these parameters are autonomous, both of them are of extremely high importance.
Due to this regulation, support is achievedthe most stable level of concentration of ions and electrolytes that are in the extracellular and intracellular fluid. Among the basic cations of the body are potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium, while the anions are bicarbonate, chlorine, sulfate and phosphate.
It is not possible to say which iron is involved inwater-salt exchange, as in this process involves a huge number of a variety of organs. It is for this reason that in the process of the organism's functioning, a wide variety of violations can be manifested, evidencing this problem, among which are the following:
- the onset of edema;
- accumulation of a large amount of fluid inside the body or, conversely, its deficiency;
- violation of electrolyte balance;
- increase or decrease in osmotic blood pressure;
- change in the acid-base state;
- increase or decrease in the concentration of certain certain ions.
It is necessary to understand correctly that a multitude of organsparticipates in the regulation of water-salt metabolism, therefore, in the majority of cases, it is not immediately possible to establish the specific cause of the problem. Basically, the water balance is directly determined by how much water is injected and removed from our body, and any disturbances of this metabolism are directly related to the electrolyte balance and begin to manifest as hydration and dehydration. The extreme expression of excess is an edema, that is, too much fluid contained in various tissues of the body, intercellular spaces and serous cavities, which is accompanied by impaired electrolyte balance.
In this case, dehydration, in turn, is divided into two main types:
- without an equivalent amount of cations, at which continuous thirst is felt, and the water contained in the cells enters the interstitial space;
- with the loss of sodium, which occurs directly from the extracellular fluid and is usually not accompanied by thirst.
All kinds of water balance violationsmanifest themselves when the total volume of the circulating fluid decreases or increases. Its excessive increase often manifests itself due to hydremia, that is, an increase in the total amount of water in the blood.
Knowledge of various pathological conditions, withwhich occur changes in the ion composition of blood plasma or the concentration of certain ions in it, is important enough for differential diagnosis of a number of diseases. All kinds of violations in the exchange of sodium in the body are represented by its excess, deficiency or various changes in its distribution throughout the body. The latter occurs when there is a normal or changed amount of sodium.
The deficit can be:
- True. It occurs because of the loss of both water and sodium, which is often manifested when there is insufficient intake of salt in the body, as well as too much perspiration, polyuria, extensive burns, intestinal obstruction and many other processes.
- Relative. Can develop against the background of excessive administration of aqueous solutions at a rate that exceeds the release of water by the kidneys.
Excess also differs in a similar way:
- True. It causes the patient to inject any salt solutions, too much consumption of common table salt, all kinds of delays in the excretion of sodium by the kidneys, as well as excessive production or the excessive administration of glucocorticoids.
- Relative. Often observed in the presence of dehydration and is a direct cause of hyperhydration and the further development of all kinds of edema.
The main violations in the exchange of potassium, which is almost completely (by 98%) is in the intracellular fluid, appears to be hyperkalemia and hypokalemia.
Hypokalemia occurs when there is excessiveamount of products, or in the case of external aldosterone or glucocorticoids, which cause too much secretion of potassium in the kidneys. Also, this can occur in the case of intravenous administration of various solutions or an insufficient amount of potassium entering the body together with food.
Hyperkalemia is a frequent consequence of trauma, starvation, a reduced volume of circulating blood, and excessive administration of various potassium solutions.
Normalize water-salt metabolism of the kidneys can beusing specialized pharmaceutical preparations that are designed specifically for changing the total content of electrolytes, water and hydrogen ions. Support and adjustment of the main factors of homeostasis is due to the interrelated work of excretory, endocrine and respiratory systems. Any, even the slightest changes in the water content or electrolytes can lead to quite serious consequences, some of which threaten even human life.
What do they appoint?
To normalize the water-salt metabolism of a person, you can use the following:
- Magnesium and potassium asparagyate. In most cases, it is prescribed exclusively as an adjunct to the main therapy for heart failure, various heart rhythm disorders, or the occurrence of myocardial infarction. Sufficiently easily absorbed when taken orally, after which it is excreted by the kidneys.
- Sodium bicarbonate. It is mainly prescribed in the presence of duodenal ulcers and stomach ulcers, metabolic acidosis, as well as gastritis with high acidity, which occurs when intoxication, infections or diabetes, as well as during the postoperative period. It quickly neutralizes the hydrochloric acid of gastric juice, and also provides an extremely fast antacid effect and increases the overall secretion of gastrin along with secondary activation of secretion.
- Sodium chloride. It is accepted in the presence of large losses of extracellular fluid or in the presence of its insufficient intake. Also, quite often doctors recommend using it for hyponatremia, hypochloraemia, intestinal obstruction and all kinds of intoxications. This remedy has a rehydrating and detoxifying effect, and also provides recovery of sodium deficiency in the presence of various pathological conditions.
- Sodium citrate. Used to ensure the stabilization of blood indicators. It is a binder for calcium, as well as a hemocoagulant inhibitor. Further increases the total sodium content in the body and increases alkaline blood reserves, which provides a positive effect.
- Hydroxyethyl starch. It is used in the course of operations, as well as burns, injuries, acute blood loss and various infectious diseases.
Thus, you can normalizewater-salt metabolism and return the body to normal. To select a specific course of treatment should only a highly qualified doctor, since alone can significantly worsen the condition.