Meningococcal infection is a diseaseinfectious etiology, which is accompanied by a poly-systemic lesion of organs. The disease begins after the penetration of a sufficient pathogenetic concentration of meningococcus in the human body. The process can proceed with the phenomena of nonclinical carriage of the infection - the most dangerous form in the epidemic. The fact is that the bacterial carrier infects healthy people, while not only does not get sick, but sometimes even does not suspect that it is a carrier of meningococcus.
Thus, meningococcal infectionis transmitted from a sick person and from a bacterium carrier by a drop route during coughing and sneezing. The causative agent is very unstable under environmental conditions and dies at temperatures above 20 degrees.
The spread of meningococcal infection is promoted by large concentrations of people, small groups with close contact between people, the cold season and high humidity.
After the introduction of a pathogenic microbe into the body,The meningococcal infection lasts an incubation period of about a week. During this time, the microbe intensively multiplies and grows stronger, and then the clinical signs of the disease appear.
Meningococcal infection occurs as an ordinary cold and can have clinical forms that determine the course of the disease.
Acute nasopharyngitis is one of the most frequent formsa disease that occurs with a predominant lesion of the nasopharynx. Patients are concerned about sore throat, scanty discharge from the nose, difficulty in nasal breathing, debilitating dry cough, which is resolved only towards the end of the disease. This form can be accompanied by vegetative-vascular disorders - headaches, dizziness, loss of consciousness. If the process of inflammation is delayed, the vascular wall of the capillaries of the nose becomes thinner and bleeding may occur.
Meningococcal infection can be complicated by purulent meningitis or menengokokkcemia.
Purulent meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes of the brain andthe presence of pus in the spinal fluid. Meningitis is accompanied by meningeal and cerebrospinal syndromes and indicates a severe course. Meningitis caused by meningococcus begins acutely and manifests itself as fibril temperature.
Meningococcal infection, the symptoms of whichstart with lightning speed, with a sharp increase in temperature to forty degrees, prognostically very unfavorable. Against the backdrop of high fever, the patient has a chill, the skin becomes dry and pale, there are pains in the joints and muscles. Then in the near future (for several hours) on the body appears hemorrhagic rash - this is a menengokokkcemia.
Hemorrhagic rash begins mainly withlower extremities (on the buttocks, legs or feet) and has an ascending character. Sometimes there can be a single hemorrhagic element, and then the body is literally covered with hemorrhages. If the rash appears immediately in the upper part of the body, then this indicates an unfavorable course of the disease and increases the risk of death.
Meningococcal infection - prevention.
Vaccination is the only effective measureprevention of this disease, however, in most cases, a drug with strain A and C is distributed in hospitals, and the most common strain that causes the disease is B.
Elimination of contact with patients, reductionthe amount of time spent in crowded places and small groups - is also a measure of prevention, but less effective. Also isolation of patients from children's and preschool institutions and work places.
As a preventive measure of all diseases, immunity-stimulating drugs and multivitamins can be used.