Fluid in the lungs: causes and treatment
The respiratory system is subject to external influences, and its diseases can be the consequence of some general pathology.
Fluid in the lungs: causes
Such a symptom, as fluid in the lungs, canappear as a result of inflammation (tuberculosis, pleurisy, pneumonia), stagnant phenomena or cancer. Fluid in the lungs begins to accumulate as a result of increased permeability of the walls of blood vessels, and also if their integrity is impaired. In the first case, the increased permeability of the walls of the vessels leads to the formation of a transudate - edematous fluid, accumulating in the lungs. In the second case, the violation of the integrity of the walls of blood vessels by mechanical action leads to their inflammation and the formation of exudate. This is a cell-rich and protein-rich liquid of a murky color that seeps through the walls of the affected blood vessels. Often, mechanical damage to the blood vessels is accompanied by the formation of hemothorax (accumulation in the pleural cavity of the blood). The cause of the appearance of fluid in the lungs can be the malfunctioning of the lung lymph system, which leads to a slowing of the removal of the edematous fluid, which, in turn, contributes to the development of edema. This occurs with a resection of the lungs, accompanied by the removal of a large number of lymph nodes, after lung transplantation. A slight increase in the amount of fluid accumulated in the pulmonary interstitium is easily tolerated by the body. When its quantity starts to increase too much, the lungs begin to lose their elasticity, there is a disturbance of what is happening in the light gas exchange, and they become rigid.
One of the first signs of an increase in volumefluid is shortness of breath. This is associated with a decrease in the rate of oxygen supply from the alveoli to the blood vessels. After all, a person has to breathe much more often than usual.
Edema of the lungs in the course of its development is 2phase. First, there is a transudation to the space of interstitium, and from there the liquid already enters the alveoli. In this case, there are attacks of cardiac asthma, mainly during sleep, a person begins to complain about the lack of air. Cough, rales. All these symptoms intensify when the patient is lying down. Later, sputum appears, there is a barely noticeable pallor of the skin, complaints of pain in the chest area. It is necessary to carry out the diagnosis of cardiac asthma, taking into account the presence of heart diseases, chronic heart failure, the age of the patient. It is necessary to distinguish cardiac asthma from dyspnea with thromboembolism of pulmonary artery branches and from bronchial asthma.
Fluid in the lungs: treatment
There are various treatments for thisdisease. First of all, respiratory support (oxygen therapy, HF VVL, etc.), which contributes to a decrease in hypoxia and an increase in intra-alveolar pressure, is necessary, which, in turn, prevents the fluid from transudating into the interstitium. It is also necessary to carry out inhalation of moistened oxygen with alcohol vapors. Nitrates (nitroglycerin) are used for treatment. They reduce the stagnation of venous blood in the lungs, while not increasing the amount of oxygen in the myocardium. Nitrates in properly selected doses contribute to reducing the load that falls on the left ventricle of the heart, causing vasodilation of the arterial and venous bed. Enter the body nitrates in two ways - it's either pills or spray. The liquid in the lungs gradually disappears.
Adequate use of analgesics(morphine). They relieve mental stress, which contributes to reducing the burden on the respiratory musculature. Also often used inotropic drugs, for example, dopamine. Its effect varies with the dose. Dosage of 5-10 μg / min causes an increase in cardiac output. Raising the dose in 2 times, we get an alpha-metatical effect.